126 IN THEE STAITS SERVIS Plate 2. The Dutch fleet seen from the dunes near Dishoek in 1674. Drawing by Zacharias Blijhooft. ZA, KZGW, Zel. 111. 11-145. Dutch recruitment centred instead on the use of embargoes on merchant shipping in the spring and summer or when war seemed imminent - to complete the crews for the campaigning season. Half-measures before the Second Dutch War with only the whale fishery periodically embargoed - proved 'defective', so that the navy was 'much worse-manned than the British'.39 From 1664, however, embar goes were more stringent, with only the herring fishery and the VOC exempted. With the Republic facing extinction from the onslaught of the French army in the Third Anglo-Dutch War, more draconian measures were imposed - on the fish eries or all merchant voyages.40 Additional measures might also be used: with war in Europe imminent in the winter of 1664/5, the States General ordered the admi ralties to retain their sailors throughout the winter in order to be ready as soon as required.41 Effectively, the removal of alternative employment options meant that the vast majority of seamen in the Dutch Republic were forced to enlist in the navy in order to subsist: it has been said that crews came aboard Dutch ships 'under the lash not of the press but of penury and need'.42 Contemporary English opinion probably agreed with this assessment: 'because they are a free state, they may not presse to sea, but by all wayes oppresse them [the seamen] soe as to constraine them to sea'.43 Rowland Gilbert, of English parentage and long-term residence in Holland, was captured at the battle of Lowestoft (1665) and released on the rec-

Tijdschriftenbank Zeeland

Archief | 2004 | | pagina 128