Te Rotterdam liggen in lading, voor Yracht en Passagiers The Seceders especially used the firm's services. Hendrik Scholte's Utrecht group signed with him and Cornelius van der Meulen wrote from Michigan spe cifically recommending the 'office of Wambersie and Crooswijck in Rotterdam'.14 Gerrit Baay, another Se- ceder clerical leader, also commended the company for its service to his group of Wisconsin colonists. Despite the obvious Se- ceder preference for the Wambersie firm, Albertus van Raalte selected the rival firm of Hudig Blokhuizen as brokers for his group. Wambersie placed agents throughout the Netherlands from Limburg to Groningen and Friesland.15 But the firm faced stiff competition in the north after 1867 when the Groningen firm of Prins Zwanenburg opened a shipping office for emigrants and freight cargo to North America. Anne Zwanenburg staffed the headquarters office in the Frisian port of Harlingen, and senior partner Arend Martens Prins became resident agent in the head office at Groningen.16 Other Rotterdam firms were Van Dam Smeer, Cornelius Balguerie Zoon, De Kuyper, and P.A. van Es Company. At Amsterdam Wehlburg Breuker and Ponselet Zonen advertised their services. Ponselet served as agent for Pieter Zonnels Seceder group from the province of Overijssel in May of 1847." Amsterdam ticket prices were considerably cheaper than those from Rotterdam but sailings were less regular. The emigration companies in the Dutch port cities not only stationed agents in interior cities and advertised widely in newspapers throughout the Netherlands, but the most ambitious firms, such as Prins Zwanenburg, sent partners and representa tives to the Dutch settlements in the United States to sell prepaid tickets and to serve as immigration agents for American railroad companies. Martin W. Prins Jr., son of the senior partner, went to Chicago, and his partner Theodore F. Koch settled in St. Paul. The firm printed glossy brochures and advertised their services and farmlands regularly in local newspapers. The number of prepaid tickets used by the Dutch is unknown, but it certainly increased over time as the immigrants became established in America and could afford to send for family members.18 The Dutch brokerages had to work hard to compete for the lucrative trade with foreign agencies from Antwerp, such as Steinman Company and Adolph Strauss and his son Henry, who operated alongside the Dutch houses. Strauss and Steinman advertised weekly in Dutch newspapers in the south. Strauss's ads in 1862 and 1863 cleverly included the text of the new American Homestead Law which appealed to small farmers. The ads also stressed that there were regular sailings each Saturday by steamboat directly from Antwerp to New York, as well as twice a month sailings on Naar JVJEUTF-YORKhet Nederlandschc gekoperde FREGATSCHIP JJSSRLKapitein C. J. A. Ver brug. Naar JVJEUJV-YORKhet Pruissische gekoperde BRIKSCHIP PROTEUSKapitein Dubel. Naar BALTIMOREhet Nederlandsche gekoperde BARKSCHIP JOH ANN JACOBKapit. L. van Geelkerken. Alle om spoedig na open water te vertrekken. Adres bij de Cargadoors WAMBERSIE en CROOSWIJCK aldaar. Advertisement in the Middelburgsche Courant by Wambersie en Crooswijck, february 1847 TRAVEL ROUTES OE ZEELAND EMIGRANTS 23

Tijdschriftenbank Zeeland

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