IN THEE STAITS SERVIS 135 Tobiaszoon's exemplary service in the Dutch navy led to a general anticipation of his promotion to admiral - he 'being mightily valued' but it was thought that William III would veto his advancement to flag rank; purely because of his Catholicism, 'though the States never mind the business of religion'.90 Although Tobiaszoon never made flag rank because of his religion, his service was permanent. Sometimes the migrants' service was temporarythough this did not exclude long service. During the Interregnum, the gunner Anthony Cockarell was dismissed from Monk (52) for 'a hasty word' and discrepancies with his accounts - though he later thought that if he had wined and dined or bribed the purser rather less subtly at the time, things might have gone otherwise! Emigrating, he followed one Dutch captain for seven years as chief pilot in 50- and 60-gun warships, before returning to Britain to serve in the Second Anglo- Dutch War with Prince Rupert and as masters mate aboard Royal Henry with Sir Robert Holmes. In 1666 he petitioned for a Royal Navy command: clearly he regarded his transfer to Dutch service as acceptable certainly as no impediment to his Royal Navy career prospects. If anything, his emphasis on the experience and skills he attained in Dutch service shows the opposite.91 Religious/Political/Ideological Motivation Whilst the British and Dutch were adversaries the Dutch navy provided an ideal vehicle for British exiles to fight the Cromwellian 'usurpers' or the 'ungodly' restored Stuarts. For exiled Royalists the First Anglo-Dutch War was just such an opportunity, though the advantage of Orange and Stuart dynastic linkage had already been reduced by the death of the Stadholder William II in 1650 and the subsequent ascendancy of Republicanism in the United Provinces. The exiled Charles II eagerly anticipated conflict between the Commonwealth and the Dutch Republic - bases would then be available for the navy to desert to, 'it being noto riously known that most of the seamen are very loyally affected to us'.92 On the outbreak of hostilities Charles II asked for a personal Dutch command, again with the aim of inducing Commonwealth seamen to desert and rally to the figurehead of their exiled king. The States General refused him to keep both the door open for a settlement with the British and the domestic Orangist faction under control. Many Dutch naval officers, however, were fervent Orangists. S.C.A. Pincus points out that at the clash with Admiral Blake off Dover that preceded the First Anglo- Dutch War, Maarten Tromp (the Elder) flew the Stuart colours. Tromp was not the only senior Dutch officer to do so and the States General directly intervened to stop the practise - due to the same combination of international and domestic concerns.93 Unfortunately, hard evidence of the recruitment of British exiles at this time is presently lacking. Evidence for ideological motivation is much better for the Second Dutch War. We have already seen the motivation of some at the Medway. The Dutch were actively recruiting exiles from the earliest stages of the conflict in 1664 by October the navy had engaged 'several English officers who formerly served Cromwell'.94 Instructions to British spying for the Dutch stressed the involvement of English Republicans in future Dutch naval attacks. In 1666 the former

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Archief | 2004 | | pagina 137