Nederland 1880-1920, in: Bijdragen tot de statistiek van Nederland1880-1900; Bijdragen tot de statis tiek van Nederland. Nieuwe volgreeks, 1901-1920. 3. The pertinent section of the Act of March 2, 1819 (3 Stat. 489) is reprinted in E.P. Hutchinson, 'Notes on immigration statistics of the United States', Journal of the American Statistical Association 53 (December 1958) 1016. This act and subsequent laws pertaining to immigrant passengers are conveniently summari zed in W. Bromwell, History of immigration to the United States (New York 1956, 19692) 206-255. See also the voluminous and detailed compilation of E.P. Hutchinson, Legislative history of American immi gration policy, 1789-1965 (Philadelphia 1981) 20-47, 534-540. 4. Act of August 2, 1882 (22 Stat. 189) and Act of March 3, 1893 (27 Stat. 569): Hutchinson, 'Notes on immi gration statistics', 1017-1019. 5. E.G. Guillet, The great migration. The Atlantic crossing by sailing-ship since 1770 (Toronto 1937); R. Armstrong, The merchantmen (London 1969) 71-79; C.B. Sonne, Saints on the seas. A maritime history of Mormon migration, 1830-1890 (Salt Lake City 1983) ch. 3-4, 6-7; B.W. Labaree, The Atlantic world of Robert G. Albion (Middletown 1975) 110-143, 228-234; R.G. Albion, The rise of New York port [1815- 1860] (New York 1939); F.C. Bowen, A century of Atlantic travel 1830-1930 (Boston 1939). 6. H. Beets, Life and times of Jannes van de Luyster, founder of Zeeland, Michigan (Zeeland. Michigan 1949) 31-40. 7. The Dutch shipping industry is described in L.A. van der Valk, 'Landverhuizersvervoer via Rotterdam in de negentiende eeuw', Economisch en sociaal historisch jaarboek 39 (1976) 148-171; C. Zevenbergen, Toen zij uit Rotterdam vertrokken. Emigratie van Rotterdam door de eeuwen heen (Zwolle 1990) 28-36; M. Callahan, 'The harbor barons. Political and commercial elites and the development of the port of Rotterdam, 1824-1892' (Ph.D. dissertation Princeton University 1981); J. Hospers, 'Autobiography,' in: J. Stellingwerff (ed.), Amsterdamse emigranten. Onbekende brieven uit de prairie van lowa (Amsterdam 1975) 233-234. See also F. Broeze, 'Connecting the Netherlands and the Americas. Ocean transport and port/airport rivalry', in: Connecting cultures, 83-89. For the story of the Rotterdam-Amsterdam rivalry for the Rhine traffic, see H.P.H. Nusteling, De Rijnvaart in het tijdperk van stoom en steenkool, 1831-1914 (Amsterdam 1974). 8. For the story of Liverpool shipping developments see F.E. Hyde, Liverpool and the Mersey. An economic histoiy of a port, 1700-1970 (Newton Abbot 1971) and the same author's Cunard and the North Atlantic. A histoiy of shipping and financial management (Atlantic Highlands 1975). 9. N.J.G. Pounds, An historical geography of Europe, 1500-1840 (Cambridge 1979) 362-363; J. van Hinte, Nederlanders in Amerika. Een studie over landverhuizers en volksplanters in de negentiende en twintigste eeuw in de Vereenigde Staten van Amerika. 2 vols. (Groningen 1928), published in English translation as: J. van Hinte [R.P. Swierenga (ed.), A. de Wit (trans.)], Netherlanders in America. A study of emigration and settlement in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the United States of America (Grand Rapids 1985) 603. 10. The factors in the rise of Antwerp are analyzed by K. Veroghtert, 'An analysis of the growth of the Antwerp port during the 19th century', in: R. Floud e.a. (eds.), New techniques of research in economic histoiy (Edinburgh 1978) 95-103; J. Everaert, 'Antwerpen als emigratiehaven. De overzeese landverhuizing naar Amerika (1830-1914)', Mededelingen [Marine Academie, Antwerpen] 26 (1980-1982) 55-67, esp. 56. 11. The percentage breakdown for Zeeland emigrants in the period 1820-1880 is: Rotterdam 56, Antwerp 22, Liverpool 11, Amsterdam and London 4 each, and Le Havre 2. This compares with overall Dutch percen tages of Rotterdam 47; Antwerp 11; Liverpool 18; and Amsterdam, London, and Le Havre each 6. 12. J. de Vries, 'Barges and capitalism. Passenger transportation in the Dutch economy, 1632-1839', A[fdeling] A[grarische] GjeschiedenisBijdragen 21 (1978) 33-398, trekvaart map on p. 88. 13. In the 1850s the office of Wambersie Son was located on the 'Boompjes', according to the Rotterdam city directory of 1859. 1 am indebted for this information to F.A.M. Schoone, deputy archivist in Rotterdam. 14. J. Hospers, 'Autobiography', in: Amsterdamse emigranten, 71, 129, 233; Van der Valk, 'Landverhuizersvervoer', 156-158; C. van der Meulen, Aan al mijne geliefde vrienden in Nederland (Goes 1847) 8 [typescript English translation by J.J. Dahm Sr. in Calvin College Archives, Grand Rapids, Michigan]. 15. Provinciaal Verslag Groningen, 1867, 535. 16. See advertisement in Provinciaal Groninger Courant8 May 1867; Gemeentearchief Groningen, Prins Zwanenburg, Groningen, to the Mayor and Alderman of Groningen, 23 July 1868 and 21 April 1870; Provinciaal Verslag Groningen, 1867, 20; 1869, 11; 1870, 9; 1872, 28.1 am indebted to Annemieke Galema for information about this firm in the municipal archives of Groningen. TRAVEL ROUTES OF ZEELAND EMIGRANTS 29

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